Current Demographic Research Report #32, May 17, 2004.

CDERR (Current Demographic Research Reports) is a weekly email report produced by the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that helps researchers keep up to date with the latest developments in the field. This report will contain selected listings of new: reports, articles, bibliographies, working papers, tables of contents, conferences, data, and websites. For more information, including an archive of back issues and subscription information see:

http://www.disc.wisc.edu/reports/CDERR/subscribe.html

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Index to this issue:

REPORTS, ARTICLES, COMPENDIUMS

Department of Labor Databook
Department of Housing and Urban Development Report
US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service Reports
National Science Foundation InfoBrief
World Health Organization Report
Organisation for Economic Development and Co-operation Report
_Demographic Research_ Articles
Carolina Population Center Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Reports
Kaiser Family Foundation Health Poll Report, Issue Brief, Report
Urban Institute Reports
Eurekalert Article
Info Health Pop. Reporter

WORKING PAPERS

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
National Bureau of Economic Research
Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

TABLES OF CONTENTS

Ingenta
Other Journals

CONFERENCES

Southern Demographic Association Call for Papers

DATA

World Health Organization
Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Panel Study of Income Dynamics
Centers for Disease Control Healthy Women Project Data Table

WEBSITES OF INTEREST

National Center for Education Statistics

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REPORTS, ARTICLES, ETC.

Department of Labor Databook: "Women in the Labor Force: A Databook" (Report 973, February 2004, .pdf format, 74p.).

http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook.htm
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Department of Housing and Urban Development Report: "Targeting Housing Production Subsidies: Literature Review" by Jill Khadduri, Kimberly Burnett, and David Rodda (December 2003, released April 2004, .pdf format, 104p.). "This report examines the current literature on rental housing markets and on housing policies for low-income renters in an attempt to answer a fundamental question. The question is what constitutes the most effective use of government subsidies that are made available for the production of rental housing. This discussion is not intended to be a continuation of the debate over whether demand or supply-side subsidies generally represent a better policy. Rather it starts from the premise that production subsidies are relatively better used in some circumstances than in others. Our objective is to identify those circumstances more precisely, so that government policy-makers and others can make good decisions about how to use the resources of housing production programs for low-income renters."

http://www.huduser.org/publications/polleg/HsgPrdSubs.html
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US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service Reports:

A. "The Economics of Obesity: A Report on the Workshop Held at USDA's Economic Research Service," by Tomas Philipson, Carolanne Dai, Lorens Helmchen, and Jayachandran Variyam (Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program E-FAN-04-004, May 2004, .pdf format, 39p.).

Abstract:

Since the mid-1970s, the prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased dramatically in the United States. The prevalence of overweight has tripled among children and adolescents, and nearly two out of three adult Americans are either overweight or obese. Although high health, social, and economic costs are known to be associated with obesity, the underlying causes of weight gain are less understood. At a basic level, weight gain and obesity are the result of individual choices. Consequently, economics, as a discipline that studies how individuals use limited resources to attain alternative ends, can provide unique insight into the actions and forces that cause individuals to gain excessive weight. In April 2003, USDA's Economic Research Service and the University of Chicagos Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies and the George J. Stigler Center for the Study of the Economy and the State jointly hosted a workshop on the Economics of Obesity. The purpose was to provide an overview of leading health economics research on the causes and consequences of rising obesity in the United States. Topics included the role of technological change in explaining both the long- and short-term trends in obesity, the role of maternal employment in child obesity, the impact of obesity on wages and health insurance, behavioral economics as applied to obesity, and the challenges in measuring energy intakes and physical activity. The workshop also discussed policy implications and future directions for obesity research. This report presents a summary of the papers and the discussions presented at the workshop.

http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/efan04004/

B. "Simplified Reporting and Transitional Benefits in the Food Stamp Program -- Case Studies of State Implementation: Final Report," by Carole Trippe, Liz Schott, Nancy Wemmerus, and Andrew Burwick (Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program E-FAN-03-004, May 2004, .pdf format, 78p.).

Abstract:

This study examines the experiences of four States (Arizona, Louisiana, Missouri, and Ohio) that use the simplified reporting option of the Food Stamp Program; Arizona also uses the transitional benefit option. With simplified reporting, States lengthen the certification period for most food stamp recipients, minimize reporting requirements between recertifications, and reduce exposure to quality control errors. With transitional benefits, States automatically continue benefits for up to 5 months for most families that leave the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. The options were introduced in 2000 and expanded under the 2002 Farm Act. The States reported reduced staff workload, improved client access, and reduced quality control errors with simplified reporting but faced some operational challenges that made realizing the option's full potential difficult. Transitional benefits were considered a valuable support for families but required substantial planning and staff resources. The primary sources of information for the study were indepth in-person interviews with State Food Stamp Program administrators and field office staff.

http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/efan04003/

C. "Food Stamp Program Access Study: Eligible Nonparticipants," by Susan Bartlett and Nancy Burstein (Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program E-FAN-03013-2, May 2004, .pdf format, 105p.).

Abstract:

Many food stamp-eligible nonparticipants are aware of the Food Stamp Program (FSP) and how to apply but do not realize that they are eligible. Nearly all eligible nonparticipating households surveyed in 2000 and 2001 knew of the FSP, but less than half thought they were eligible. Most nonparticipant households said that they would apply for food stamp benefits if they were sure they were eligible. Nonetheless, 27 percent would never apply. The main reason for not applying was a desire for personal independence. Some eligible nonparticipants were interested enough in receiving benefits to contact the food stamp office but did not get enough information or support to become participants. This report was produced as part of the Food Stamp Program Access Study, which is examining local food stamp office policies and practices as possible barriers to participation. The report focuses on one group of eligible households, those who are not participating in the FSP. As a group, these households generally have higher incomes and earnings and are more food secure than participants.

http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/efan03013/efan03013-2/
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National Science Foundation InfoBrief: "U.S. Academic R&D Continues to Grow as More Universities and Colleges Expand Their R&D Activities," by Brandon Shackelford (NSF 04-319, May 2004, HTML and.pdf format, 4p., with tables in Microsoft Excel format).

http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/infbrief/nsf04319/start.htm
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World Health Organization Report: "The World Health Report 2004 - Changing History" (May 2004, HTML and .pdf format, 91p.). "This year's report, 'Changing History,' calls for a comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy that links prevention, treatment, care and long-term support. At a crucial moment in the pandemic's history, the international community has an unprecedented opportunity to alter its course and simultaneously fortify health systems for the enduring benefit of all."

http://www.who.int/whr/en/

Click on "Chapter index" for link to full text. .pdf link is at the bottom of each HTML chapter.
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Organisation for Economic Development and Co-operation Report: "Female Labour Force Participation: Past Trends and Main Determinants in OECD Countries" (May 2004, .pdf format, 16p.).

http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/25/5/31743836.pdf
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_Demographic Research_ Articles: Note: _DR_ is a "free, expedited, peer-reviewed journal of the population sciences published by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research."

A. "Tracing very long-term kinship networks using SOCSIM," by Mike Murphy (Vol. 10, Art. 7, May 2004, .pdf format, p. 172-196).

Abstract:

While each individual has 10 billion ancestors a thousand years ago, these are not distinct and in practice, the number of distinct ancestors is much smaller. A female ("mitochondrial Eve") and a male ancestor ("Y-chromosome Adam") of all humans certainly existed, possibly about 100,000 years ago, and a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all humans existed much more recently. I use the SOCSIM micro simulation program to estimate the patterns of descent over periods of several centuries, using as indicators,:the proportion of people without any living descendants; the mean number of distinct descendants; and the genetic contribution to later populations. About three quarters of those born in the past have no descendant, mainly because they did not reach the age of reproduction. After about 500 years, the number of descendants with the populations sizes used her, about 4,000, the number of descendants becomes very similar and close to the size of the number of descendants, confirming that even in these timescale, in the past, a person is either the ancestor of everyone, or of no-one. However, the genetic contribution does not exhibit a similar tendency to uniformity. Issues such as the relevant measures of generational replacement to cases with multiple lines of descent are also considered.

B."Population aging and the extended family in Taiwan: A new model for analyzing and projecting living arrangements," by Andrew Mason and Sang-Hyop Lee (Vol. 10, Art. 8, May 2004, .pdf format, p. 198-230).

Abstract:

Population aging produces changes in the availability of kin with uncertain implications for extended living arrangements. We propose a highly stylized model that can be used to analyze and project age-specific proportions of adults living in extended and nuclear households. The model is applied to Taiwan using annual data from 1978-1998. We estimate cohort and age effects showing that more recently born cohorts of seniors are less likely to live in extended households, but that as seniors age the proportion living in extended households increases. The effect of individual aging has diminished over time, however. The proportion of non-senior adults living in extended households has increased steadily because changes in the age structure have increased the availability of older kin. The model is used to project living arrangements and we conclude that the proportion living in extended households will begin to decline gradually for both seniors and non-seniors. The extended family is becoming less important in Taiwan, but it is not on the way out.

http://www.demographic-research.org

Click on "Enter".
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Carolina Population Center [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill] Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Reports:

A. "Monitoring Economic Conditions in the Russian Federation: The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey 1992-2003," by T.Mroz, L. Henderson, M. Bontch-Osmolovskii, and B.M. Popkin (Report submitted to the US Agency for International Development, April 2004, .pdf format, 28p.).

http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/rlms/papers/econ_03.pdf

B. "Monitoring Sexual Behavior in the Russian Federation: The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey 2001-2003," by V. Vannappagari (Report submitted to the US Agency for International Development, April 2004, .pdf format, 12p.).

http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/rlms/papers/sex_03.pdf

C. "Monitoring Health Conditions in the Russian Federation: The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey 1992-2003," by N. Zohoori, D. Blanchette, and B.M. Popkin (Report submitted to the US Agency for International Development, April 2004, .pdf format, 19p.).

http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/rlms/papers/health_03.pdf
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Kaiser Family Foundation Health Poll Report, Issue Brief, Report:

A. The current Kaiser Family Foundation Health Poll report features "Public Opinion on the Uninsured" in conjunction with "Cover the Uninsured Week" (May 10-16, 2004).

http://www.kff.org/healthpollreport/CurrentEdition/feature/index.cfm

Note: This is a temporary address. When the next Health Poll Report becomes available, this one, along with all others back to 2002, will be available at:

http://www.kff.org/healthpollreport

B. "Financing HIV/AIDS Care: A Quilt with Many Holes," by Jennifer Kates (AIDS Policy Issue Brief, May 2004, .pdf format, 22p.). "There are multiple sources of insurance coverage and care for people with HIV/AIDS in the United States, including public programs such as Medicaid, Medicare, and the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act, other safety net programs, and private coverage. As a result, the current system of financing for HIV care is a complex patchwork that leaves some outside the system and presents others with barriers to needed access. This updated report, 'Financing HIV/AIDS Care: A Quilt with Many Holes,' provides a comprehensive overview of the current financing system for HIV/AIDS care in the U.S."

http://www.kff.org/hivaids/1607-02.cfm

C. "Moving Immigrants from a Medicaid Look-Alike Program to Basic Health in Washington State: Early Observations," by Mark Gardner and Janet Varon (Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, May 2004, .pdf format, 29p.). "In 2002, the state of Washington eliminated state-funded Medicaid look-alike coverage for certain immigrant families. These families then became eligible for more limited coverage in the state's Basic Health program. This report details the process of this transition and the outcomes for coverage and access for these individuals."

http://www.kff.org/medicaid/7079a.cfm
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Urban Institute Reports:

A. "Changing Options for Insurance Coverage: How Does the Future Look for Low- and Middle-Income Workers if Employer Sponsored Coverage Is Not an Option?" by Sharon K. Long and Yu-Chu Shen (May 2004, .pdf format, 12p.).

http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=1000646

B. "Work, Offers, and Take-Up: Decomposing the Source of Recent Declines in Employer-Sponsored Insurance," by Linda J. Blumberg and John Holahan (May 2004, .pdf format, 22p.).

http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=1000645

C. "Changes in Insured Coverage and Access to Care for Middle-Class Americans, 1999-2002," by Linda J. Blumberg and John Holahan (May 2004, .pdf format, 10p.).

http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=1000644

D. "Labor Force Status and Insurance Coverage, 1999 and 2002," by Jack Hadley (May 2004, .pdf format, 9p.).

http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=1000643
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Eurekalert Article: "Some married couples will do better by lowering expectations, study finds" (Eurekalert [American Association for the Advancement of Science]), May 11, 2004).

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2004-05/osu-smc051104.php
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Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health's Center for Communication Programs Compendium: Info Health Pop. Reporter (Vol. 4, No. 20, May 17, 2004). "The Johns Hopkins University Population Information Program delivers the reproductive health and family planning news you need. Each week our research staff prepares an electronic magazine loaded with links to key news stories, reports, and related developments around the globe."

http://www.infoforhealth.org/popreporter/

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WORKING PAPERS:

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research [Rostock Germany]:

A. "The compatibility between work and family life -- an empirical study of second birth risks in West Germany and France," by Katja Koppen (WP-2004-015, May 2004, .pdf format, 41p.).

Abstract:

In this study, we compare second birth risks in France and West Germany using data from the Family and Fertility Survey (FFS). Second birth risks in France are higher than in West Germany and we investigate whether this phenomenon relates to different institutional constraints regarding the compatibility between work and family life. Considering that education is a good indicator for higher career and income prospects, one would assume that highly educated women encounter low fertility rates in a society that makes it hard to combine both domains. Our results, however, show that second birth risks are higher for highly educated women than for women with lower education in both countries. Nevertheless, the positive effect of womens education on second birth risks is strong and stable in the case of France only. In West Germany, the positive effect is a weak one and it weakens even further after controlling for the education level of the partner. In France, the strong positive effect of womens education on second birth risks remains unchanged, even after controlling for the partners characteristics and other control variables. Our conclusion is that since in France the compatibility between work and family life is relatively high, highly educated women turn their education into work opportunities and income. In West Germany, where work and family life are rather incompatible, women often have to make a decision between an employment career and motherhood as two exclusive life options. In such a situation, it is primarily the partners economic situation that influences fertility.

http://www.demogr.mpg.de/papers/working/wp-2004-015.pdf

B. "Does the impact of socioeconomic status on mortality decrease with increasing age?" by Rasmus Hoffmann (WP-2004-016, May 2004, .pdf format, 21p.).

Abstract:

The impact of SES on mortality is an established fact. I examine if this impact decreases with increasing age. Most research finds that it does so but it is unknown whether this decrease is due to mortality selection. The data I use come from the US-Health and Retirement Study, which surveyed 9376 persons aged 59 and over from 1992 to 2000. The variables allow for a time varying measurement of SES, health and behavior. Event-history-analysis is applied to analyze differences in mortality rates. My results show that socioeconomic mortality differences are stable across ages whereas they clearly decline with decreasing health. My first finding, that health rather than age is the equalizer combined with the second finding, that good health itself is unequally distributed, leads to the conclusion that in old age, the impact of SES is transferred to the health status and hence it is stable across ages.

http://www.demogr.mpg.de/papers/working/wp-2004-016.pdf

C. "Hamilton's indicators of the force of selection," by Annette Baudisch (WP-2004-017, May 2004, .pdf format, 10p.).

Abstract:

Hamilton quantified the force of selection on an age-specific mutation. Hamilton's indicators of the age-specific force of selection always decline with age. This result is of profound importance to the theory of the evolution of senescence. Here I derive alternative indicators within Hamilton's framework. These indicators are as plausible and valid as Hamilton's and in some circumstances and over some age ranges they increase with age.

http://www.demogr.mpg.de/papers/working/wp-2004-017.pdf
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National Bureau of Economic Research:

A. "Does Prekindergarten Improve School Preparation and Performance?" by Katherine A. Magnuson, Christopher J. Ruhm, and Jane Waldfogel (w10452, April 2004, .pdf format, 46p.).

Abstract:

Pre-kindergarten programs are expanding rapidly, but to date, evidence on their effects is quite limited. Using rich data from Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, we estimate the effects of prekindergarten on children's school readiness. We find that prekindergarten increases reading and mathematics skills at school entry, but also increases behavioral problems and reduces self-control. Furthermore, the effects of prekindergarten on skills largely dissipate by the spring of first grade, although the behavioral effects do not. Finally, effects differ depending on children's family background and subsequent schooling, with the largest and most lasting academic gains for disadvantaged children and those attending schools with low levels of academic instruction.

http://papers.nber.org/papers/W10452

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address at the bottom of the abstract for full text.

B. "Child Care Subsidy Receipt, Employment, and Child Care Choices of Single Mothers," by Erdal Tekin (w10459, May 2004, .pdf format, 18p.).

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of actual subsidy receipt of single mothers on their joint employment and child care mode decisions in the post-welfare reform environment, which places a high priority on parental choice with the quality and type of care chosen. Results indicate that single mothers are highly responsive to child care subsidies by increasing their employment while moving from parental and relative care to center care in the process.

http://papers.nber.org/papers/W10459

Click on "PDF" or submit your email address at the bottom of the abstract for full text.
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Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) [Bonn, Germany]:

A. "Interethnic Marriages and Economic Assimilation of Immigrants," by Jasmin Kantarevic (Discussion Paper No. 1142, May 2004, .pdf format, 36p.).

Abstract:

This paper examines the relationship between interethnic marriages and economic assimilation among immigrants in the United States. Two competing hypotheses are evaluated: the productivity hypothesis, according to which immigrants married to native-born spouses assimilate faster than comparable immigrants married to foreign-born spouses because spouses play an integral role in the human capital accumulation of their partners; and the selection hypothesis, according to which the relationship between intermarriages and assimilation is spurious because intermarried immigrants are a selected subsample from the population of all married immigrants. These two hypotheses are analyzed within a model in which earnings of immigrants and their interethnic marital status are jointly determined. The empirical evidence favors the selection hypothesis. Non-intermarried immigrants tend to be negatively selected, and the intermarriage premium obtained by the least squares completely vanishes once we account for the selection.

ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp1142.pdf

B. "The Effect of High Stakes High School Achievement Awards: Evidence from a School-Centered Randomized Trial," by Joshua Angrist and Victor Lavy (Discussion Paper No. 1146, May 2004, .pdf format, 40p.).

Abstract:

In many countries, college-bound high school seniors must pass a test or series of tests. In Israel, this requirement is known as the 'Bagrut', or matriculation certificate, obtained by passing a series of subject tests. In spite of the Bagruts value, Israeli society is marked by vast differences in Bagrut rates by region and socioeconomic status. We attempted to increase the likelihood of Bagrut certification among low-achieving students by offering substantial cash incentives to high school seniors in an experimental demonstration program. As a theoretical matter, such incentives may be helpful if low-achieving students reduce investment in schooling because of high discount rates, part-time work, or face peer pressure not to study. The experiment studied here used a school-based randomization design offering awards to all students in treated schools who passed their exams. Randomization was imperfect because of the clustered design. We discuss alternative strategies for dealing with clustering in research of this type. On balance, the estimates point to a substantial and statistically significant treatment effect for students close to the margin for certification. We also look at a number of mediating outcomes in an effort to determine how students responded to incentives. These results show students took more tests and were more likely to accumulate the number of credit units required for Bagrut success.

ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp1146.pdf

C. "Identity and Racial Harassment," by Heather Antecol and Deborah Cobb-Clark (Discussion Paper No. 1149, May 2004, .pdf format, 47p.).

Abstract:

In a 1996 survey of U.S. military personnel, more than 65 percent experienced racially offensive behavior, and approximately one-in-ten reported threatening incidents or career related racial discrimination. Perceived racial harassment is driven by social classifications that extend beyond racial group membership. While race clearly matters, there is also diversity in the harassment experiences of individuals of the same race with diverging organizational, cultural or social experiences. Social prescriptions constraining inter-racial interactions are associated with higher rates of offensive racial encounters and more career related discrimination, while aspects of an installations institutional culture also directly affect harassment. Together, these results lend support for a model of racial harassment that encompasses both institutional factors and a multifaceted notion of racial identity.

ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp1149.pdf

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JOURNAL TABLES OF CONTENTS (check your library for availability):

INGENTA Tables of Contents: INGENTA provides fee based document delivery services for selected journals.

A. Point your browser to:

http://www.ingenta.com/

B. click on "browse by publication"
C. Click the "fax/ariel" radio button, type the Journal Name in the "by words in the title" search box and click "search".
D. View the table of contents for the issue noted.

AIDS (Vol. 18, No. 6, 2004).

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Other Journals:

American Journal of Sociology (Vol. 109, No. 6, May 2004). Note: Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library. Check your library for the availability of this database and this issue.

http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJS/journal/contents/v109n6.html

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CONFERENCES:

Southern Demographic Association Call for Papers: SDA has issued a call for papers in association with it's 2004 Annual Meeting, to be held Oct. 14-16, 2004 in Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. For more information see:

http://www.fsu.edu/~sda/sda2004_call_for_papers.html

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DATA:

World Health Organization: "Core Health Indicators by country." This interactive data extractor allows the user to display one or multiple countries, and any one of 32 variables from the topics of Mortality Indicators, Population, Life Expectancy, and National Health Accounts for any or all of the years from 1997-2002. Quick graphs can also be generated.

http://www3.who.ch/whosis/core/core1.cfm?path=whosis,core_indicators&language=english
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Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research: ICPSR at the University of Michigan has recently released the following datasets, which may be of interest to demography researchers. Note: Some ICPSR studies are available only to ICPSR member institutions. To find out whether your organization is a member, and whether or not it supports ICPSR Direct downloading, see:

http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/membership/index.html

Current Population Survey, October 2001: School Enrollment (#3910)

http://webapp.icpsr.umich.edu/cocoon/ICPSR-STUDY/03910.xml

School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000 (#3964)

http://webapp.icpsr.umich.edu/cocoon/ICPSR-STUDY/03964.xml
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Panel Study of Income Dynamics Corrections:

A. "1993 PSID Core Family Data -- 1993 Date of Interview Correction File" (May 13, 2004). For more information see:

http://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/Guide/DataNewsDet.aspx?&ID=303

B. "1994 PSID Core Family Data -- 1994 Date of Interview Correction File" (May 13, 2004). For more information see:

http://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/Guide/DataNewsDet.aspx?&ID=304
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Centers for Disease Control Healthy Women Project Data Table Updates: CDC has updated the following tables (Beyond 20/20 format): Binge Drinking; Blood Stool Testing; Body Mass Index; Cholesterol Screening; Health Care Coverage; Hypertension; Mammogram Screening; Pap Smear Screening; Physical Activity; Routine Checkups; and Smoking Status. In addition, one new table, "Daily Servings of Fruits and Vegetables" has been added.

http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/healthywomen.htm

Click on "Tables"

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WEBSITES OF INTEREST:

National Center for Education Statistics: "International Education Indicators." "Education Indicators: An International Perspective is a compilation of indicators from a multitude of data sources which provides a rich array of information on the current state of education internationally. They are intended to provide snapshots of the U.S. education system in comparison to systems in countries around the world. Many of the indicators include comparisons between the United States and other industrialized nations with large economies - particularly those that are viewed as our major economic competitors, for example, the Group of Eight (G8) countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States."

http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/international/IntlIndicators/

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Jack Solock
Data Librarian--Center for Demography and Ecology
4470 Social Science
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI 53706
608-262-9827
jsolock@ssc.wisc.edu